History andGrowth of the Internet from 1945 to 1995Before getting into the numbers, let's take a look at thefascinating history of the Internet, from 1945 to 1995, bycourtesy of the World Wide Web Consortium(W3C). History and Growth of the Internet from 1995 tillTodayToday the Internet continues to grow day by day makingMcLuhan's Global Village a reality. The following tableshows the incredibly fast evolution of the Internet from1995 till the present time:
The expansion of the National Basketball Association has happened several times in the league's history since it began play in 1946. The most recent examples of the expansion of the NBA are the Charlotte Hornets and Miami Heat in 1988, Minnesota Timberwolves and Orlando Magic in 1989, Toronto Raptors and Vancouver Grizzlies in 1995 (who relocated to Memphis in 2001), and New Orleans Hornets in 2002. In June 2022, Commissioner Adam Silver confirmed that while there are no current plans to expand beyond 30 teams, the NBA "invariably will expand."
The Pharmacological Society of Canada (PSC) formed in 1956 and became a constituent society of the Canadian Federation of Biological Sciences (CFBS) in 1958. Over subsequent decades, it met annually with CFBS, matured as a society, and established an identity as the voice of pharmacology in Canada. During the 1980s, it sought a larger stage and bid for, and then hosted, the XIIth International Congress of Pharmacology in Montreal in 1994. The society then participated in several joint meetings with other national pharmacology societies. In 2008, the PSC merged with the Canadian Society for Clinical Pharmacology to form the Canadian Society for Pharmacology and Therapeutics. The following article is a history of the PSC from its formation in the mid-1950s to amalgamation in 2008.
During the 1980s, granting agencies were formulating policies to recognize and foster the participation of women in science. The first woman to serve the PSC was a Council Member in the mid 1970s, Betty Sasyniuk. The first female to serve as President of the PSC was Gail Bellward in 1987-1989; she had previously served as Secretary from 1977 to 1980 and became Vice President in 1985 (Box 8). She was followed in these multiple roles by Cathy Pang (Secretary 1988-1992, President 1995-1997) and Jana Sawynok (Secretary 1992-1996, President 1999-2001). Two others served as PSC Secretary, Jane Rylett from 1999 to 2003 and Fiona Parkinson from 2003 to 2006. Over the years, there have been three female Senior Scientist awardees (2000 Teresa Allen, 2003 Jane Rylett, 2008 Susan Cole) and five female Junior Scientist awardees (1988 Jana Sawynok, 1991 Susan Cole, 1996 Susan Howlett, 1998 Fiona Parkinson, 2004 Natalie Vergnolle). Notably, Susan Cole received both the Junior and Senior Scientist Awards.
In 2007, the PSC joined with the Western Pharmacological Society to meet at the Conference Centre in Banff National Park. By then, several medical schools had evolved their curricula to an integrated format as opposed to discipline-based education. This challenged departments of pharmacology to ensure that their discipline was included in such curricula and taught appropriately. With the greater emphasis on clinical practice, many departments found themselves justifying their hours in new curricula. At the 2004 annual general meeting, it was noted that the Science, Social Policy, and Educational Policy Committees of the PSC were inactive and the society itself was changing. In addition, Canadians were now using an increasing number of complementary and alternative therapies, with one branch in particular--that of Natural Health Products--affecting pharmacology teaching. As of2004, Canada was regulating Natural Health Products, so this was an important issue to address. An ad hoc committee (consisting of Kathy MacLeod, Bob McNeill, and Kanji Nakatsu) was asked to investigate ways, and the value of, incorporating teaching of Natural Health Products into medical and pharmacy curricula. This manifested as a symposium in Banff to address Complementary and Alternative Medicine, which involved speakers from academia and industry, including some from Europe, where the history of natural product use by individuals and professionals had been significant for decades and was well established. 2b1af7f3a8