The Invisible String Ebook Rar ((BETTER))
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So absorbed was I in this unique spectaclethat I carelessly allowed my elbow to dislodgea loose fragment of stone which went clatteringdown the face of the precipice. This provedto be almost fatal carelessness, for, with amovement as quick as the stroke of a rattlesnake,the lad placed an arrow to the stringof a bow and sent the barbed shaft with suchforce, promptitude and precision that it wentthrough my fur cap, the arrow entangling abunch of my hair, taking it along with it.
It was truly wonderful the way this man, ina trance-like state, was guided by an invisiblepower over the most dangerous ground, butno one, after a careful survey, could haveselected a better trail than that chosen byBig Pete. On and on we went, scramblingover rock-skirting precipices and crumblingledges. A dense fog settled around us, makingeach step hazardous, but with an instinct astrue and apparently identical with that ofour four-footed brothers, my guide kept thesame rapid pace for hours, and then, all of asudden, came to an abrupt stop.
Similar to the previous answers, the problem is some character (possibly invisible) that the Python interpreter doesn't recognize. Because this is often due to copy-pasting code, re-typing the line is one option.
Also, we will not explain game programming, as game programming isa broad area, and there are already a lot of tutorials available. Maybe in later editions of thebook, we will add some of these topics, e.g. game programming, as so many people like it.But we will always have to ensure that a possible printed book version will not getmore than 500 pages, so we may then leave out some stuff in the printed version.
More visible to the ordinary computer user are the peripheral devices like keyboard,mouse, screen, and perhaps a printer. These enable human interaction with the computer,but are in no way a core component of it; the computer can run well without them. Innotebooks or laptop computers or in cellphones, the peripheral devices are closelyintegrated with the core components. All the physical parts of a computer are alsocalled hardware, while the programs running on that hardware are calledsoftware.
We already mentioned the assembly languages, which provide only the basic operationsthat the CPU can perform. Assembly languages provide no abstractions, so maybe weshould not even call them programming languages at all. Then there are low-levellanguages like Fortran or C, with some basic abstractions, which still work close tothe hardware and which are mostly designed for high performance and low resourceconsumption (RAM), but not to detect and prevent programming errors or to make lifeeasy for programmers. These languages already support some higher-order data types,like floating-point numbers or text (strings), homogeneous, fixed-size containers(called arrays in C), or heterogeneous fixed-size containers (called structs in C).
This tight binding of methods to classes is not very flexible, e.g. extending the setof methods of a class may be difficult or impossible. Another problem with such a class conceptis, that it is not always clear to which class a method belongs when more than just one singleclass is involved: Imagine that we need a method that appends a single character to a text string.Is that method a member of the character class, or a member of the text string class?
As an example of the functional programming style in Nim, we maylook at some code fragment from a real-world app that has to generatea string from four numbers, separated by commas. Using the mapIt()procedure imported from the sequtils module andthe fmt() macro from the strformat module, we may writethat in functional programming style in this way:
Nim offers a modern type system with templates, generics, and type inference. Built-inadvanced data types like dynamic containers, sets, and strings with full UTF supportare completed by a large collection of library types like hash tables and regularexpressions. While the traditional Object-Oriented-Programming programming style with inheritance anddynamic dispatch is supported, Nim does not enforce this programming paradigm andoffers modern concepts, like procedural and functional programming.The optional method call syntax allows to use all data types and functions inan OOP like fashion, e.g. instead of len(myStr) we can also use the OOP style myStr.len.The powerfulAST-based hygienic macro system offers nearly unlimited possibilities for theadvanced programmer. This macro and meta-programming system allows compiler-guidedcode generation at compile-time, so the Nim core language can be kept small andcompact, while many advanced features are enabled by user-defined macros. For example,the support of asynchronous IO operations has been created with these forms ofmeta-programming, as well as many Domain Specific Language (DSL) extensions.
Maybe not. When you intend to learn a programming language todayand make a great video game tomorrow, then definitely not. Thisis just not possible. While there are nice libs for making gameswith Nim already available, there exist easier solutionsin other languages. With some luck, you may find some source codefor that languages so that you can patch a few stringsand perhaps modify some colors and the background music and call it your game.
Note that the return key behaves differently in editors than in the terminalwindow: In the terminal window, you type in a command and finally press the return keyto "launch" or execute the command. In an editor, the return key is not that special:if you press ordinary keys in your editor, then that key is inserted and the cursormoves one position to the right. And when you press the return key, then an invisiblenewline character is inserted and the cursor moves to the start of the next line.
We have already used the echo() procedure for displaying textual output in the terminalwindow. In the code examples of the previous sections, we always passed arguments of integertype to the echo() proc, and the echo() proc automatically converted the integer numbersto a textual sequence of decimal digits so that we could read it in the terminal. In the Nim programming language, text is a predefined, built-indata type that is called string. We will learn all the details of the string data type in the next section,for now, it is sufficient that it exists and that we can use the echo() proc to print text strings.The echo() proc has the ability to convert other data types like numbers or the boolean data type (true/false)automatically to human-readable text strings,so that we can read the output in the terminal. Recall that most data types are stored internally in our computeras bits and bytes, which have no true human-readable representation by default. Numbers, like most other datatypes stored in the computer, are actual abstract entities. We have learned already that all data in the computeris internally stored in binary form, that is, as a bit pattern of 0 and 1. But even that bit pattern is still an abstraction, we wouldrequire a procedure that prints a 0 for each unset bit and a 1 for each set bit to display the content of an internally storednumber in binary form in the terminal or elsewhere. In the same way, we require a procedure to print an internally stored numberas a human-readable sequence of decimal digits.Even text strings are internally stored as abstract bit patterns, and we needconversion procs to print the content for us as ordinary text. All that can be done by the echo() proc,but we do not care for the actual details at this point of the book.
For our further experiments, we may also want to be able to enter some user datain the terminal. As we do not know much about the various available data types and theprocs that can be used to read them in, we will just present a procedure that can read ina text string that the user has typed in the terminal window.We use a function with the namereadLine() for this task.
Nim supports the method call syntax, which was earlier calledUniform Function Call Syntax in the D programming language. With that syntax, we canwrite procedure calls in the form a.f instead of f(a). We will discuss that syntax inmore detail when we explain procedures and functions. For now, it is enough that you know about theexistence of that syntax, as we may use it in some places in the following sections.For example, for the length of text strings, we generally write myTextString.leninstead of len(myTextString). Both notations are fully equivalent.
Note that all the data types that are built into the language, like the primitive types int, float, or char, as wellas the built-in container types like tuple, object, seq, and string, are written in lower case, whiledata types that are defined by the Nim standard library or that we define our self, by convention, startswith a capital letter like the CountTables type defined in the tables module. Some people may regard this as an inconsistency,others may say that in this way we can differentiate built-in types from types defined by libraries. At least we may agreethat using capital notation for common types as in Int, Float, or String would be more difficult to type andwould look not that nice.
The data type for single characters is called char in Nim. A variable of type charhas 8 bits and can store single characters. Indeed, it stores 8-bit integers which aremapped to characters. The mapping is described by the ASCII table. For example, theinteger value 65 in decimal is mapped to the character A. When we use singlecharacter literals, then we have to enclose the letter in single quotes. As only 8bits are used to store characters, we only have 256 different values, including upperand lower case letters, punctuation characters, and some characters with a specialmeaning like a newline character to move the cursor in the terminal to the next line,or a backspace character to move the cursor one position backward. Single charactersare not used that often, since we generally group them in sequences called strings tobuild text. 2b1af7f3a8